Tourism is about people who stay away at last one night, from their usual place of work or residence. It is a complex human activity, leading to the consumption of numerous transportation, accommodation, meal, entertainment, and other goods and services. (Jose, S., 1997)
Tourists are people (overnight visitors) who stay at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited. It is important to fully understand the difference between tourists and other travelers. In reference to Fig 13, on appendix 13, tourists have different reasons for traveling and the time they usually spend at a place visited, whereas other travelers such as refugees and wanderers have also completely different reasons for moving from one place to another and the time they usually spent in their destination. Travelers who travel from one place to another for recreation, holiday, leisure, business and professional, etc are considered as tourists whereas other travelers who migrate for such reasons as to find other places to settle, members of the armed forces, transit passengers and so forth are considered as other travelers. ( Jose, S., 1997)
Tourism is one of the world's largest industries and one of its fastest growing economic sectors. According to the World Tourism Organization, 698 million people traveled to a foreign country in 2000, spending more than US$ 478 billion. International tourism receipts combined with passenger transport currently total more than US$ 575 billion - making tourism the world's number one export earner, ahead of automotive products, chemicals, petroleum and food.
Tourism industry was first established in
According to the Kiribati Government 2006 and 2007 Budget (32, 34), the total amount, which the government decided to spend on tourism for the year 2006 is $210,169 and $190,267 for 2007. This show a drop of $19,902 amount that expected to be spent on tourism, which reflects the idea that the
The visitors arrival pattern have constantly changed because of flight cancellation and most significantly the current location of
1.0.2 Country of Residence of Arrival Visitors to
However, arrival visitors to Kiribati are originally come from Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, Canada, USA, UK, Other Pacific countries, Other European countries, Japan, Other Asian countries etc. Refer to chart 2 on the result section; you can see the total number of visitors visiting
1.0.4 Tourism Attractions in
1.2.1. Identifying and describing the issue
1.2.2 .Identifying and describing the impacts of the issue on the various sectors of the economy including the social and economic effects.
1.2.3. Identifying and describing the measures that are being taken to address the issue.
1.2.4. Describing the consequences of the measures being taken on the various sectors of the economy.
1.3.1. Using the Internet for finding further information on tourism.
1.3.2. Visiting economic sites such as Kiribati National Tourism Office for collecting data and finding more information concerning tourism in
1.3.3. Using economic sources such as magazines, newspapers, books and other written materials from the library.
1.3.4. Conducting personal interviews with appropriate people due with tourism industry in
Chart 1: Inflow of Arrival Visitors
As indicated on the graph above, the number of tourism arrivals decreased from 4,839 visitors in 2000, to provisional 4,406 visitors in 2006. It clearly shows that the main trend of the number of visitors visiting
Chart 2: Countries of Residence (Source: A chart above displays the total number of visitors from different countries visiting Chart 3: Most Visited Attractions in As shown on the pie chart above, most visited places were Tarawa Lagoon(33 per cent), Defence Guns Betio(30 Per cent), (Source: As indicated by the graph above, tourism has generated foreign exchange earnings about 147% increase from the 1997 figure to 2004. For these three years, foreign exchange earnings from tourism have been increased significantly from $AUD 1.7millon in 1992 to 2.6million in 1997 and then increased more rapidly to $AUD 4.9 million in 2004. This reflects the greater significance of Tourism to the economy. Fig 1: Internalizing by regulation Output PMC SMC D Q1 Q2 P2 P1 Internalizing negative externalities by regulation Internalizing negative externalities by regulation Internalizing negative externalities by regulation (Source: University Bursary & Scholarship Economics, 2001, 180) Fig 1 demonstrates that without regulation, tourism sectors will not bother of polluting the environment as indicated by the PMC curve. After the establishment of laws or regulations to ban environmental polluting activities, the cost to the tourism industry rises to SMC. The cost of the externality (pollution) has been internalized (i.e. put back on the producer) by regulation. Unless the demand curve is perfectly elastic, (horizontal), the cost of these installations will be split between the tourism industry and the tourists with the price rising from P1 to P2. Fig 2: Increased in demand (Source: Evans, G., 2003, 116) Fig 2 represents how the increase in demand affects the price of a commodity. When the demand increase from D to D’ (i.e. shift upward), the price of the commodity will increase from P to P’ and the quantity supplied increase from Q to Q’.
Chart 2: Countries of Residence
A chart above displays the total number of visitors from different countries visiting
Chart 3: Most Visited Attractions in
As shown on the pie chart above, most visited places were Tarawa Lagoon(33 per cent), Defence Guns Betio(30 Per cent),
As indicated by the graph above, tourism has generated foreign exchange earnings about 147% increase from the 1997 figure to 2004. For these three years, foreign exchange earnings from tourism have been increased significantly from $AUD 1.7millon in 1992 to 2.6million in 1997 and then increased more rapidly to $AUD 4.9 million in 2004. This reflects the greater significance of Tourism to the economy.
Fig 1: Internalizing by regulation
Internalizing negative externalities by regulation
Internalizing negative externalities by regulation
Internalizing negative externalities by regulation
(Source: University Bursary & Scholarship Economics, 2001, 180)
Fig 1 demonstrates that without regulation, tourism sectors will not bother of polluting the environment as indicated by the PMC curve. After the establishment of laws or regulations to ban environmental polluting activities, the cost to the tourism industry rises to SMC. The cost of the externality (pollution) has been internalized (i.e. put back on the producer) by regulation. Unless the demand curve is perfectly elastic, (horizontal), the cost of these installations will be split between the tourism industry and the tourists with the price rising from P1 to P2.
Fig 2: Increased in demand
(Source: Evans, G., 2003, 116)
Fig 2 represents how the increase in demand affects the price of a commodity. When the demand increase from D to D’ (i.e. shift upward), the price of the commodity will increase from P to P’ and the quantity supplied increase from Q to Q’.
(Source: Evans, G., 2003, 133)
Fig 3 demonstrates the effects of a subsidy on the market that is: the supply curve shifts vertically downwards from S to Ss by th amount of the subsidy(jh or kc per unit). The total government expenditure on this subsidy is the vertical distance between the supply curves multiplied by the new quantity, represented by the area jkch. The original price and quantity are i and e respectively. The price falls from i to h not by the full amount of the subsidy, because of the demand and supply curves. The quantity increases from e to d. Consumer Surplus(CS) is increased from abi to ach. The increase in Consumer Surplus is the area ibch, which is the amount by which price drops for the consumer, from i to h. Producer Surplus(PS) is increased from ibg to jkg, or can be represented by the area hcf. The increase in PS is the area jkbi, and represents the increase in price received by the producer, from i to j.
Table 1: Most Visited Attractions on
Defence Guns, Betio
Tarawa Amboo Lagoon
Robert Louis Stevesion Site (Abemama)
Union Jack Spot ( Abemama)
Whaler Fort (Abemama)
Bonefish Fishing, Christmas Island
American Memorial (2nd Manrine Division)
Japanese Memorial Garden
Grave of King Binoka
Bird Sanctuaries, Christmas Island
The table above represents the most visited attraction place to the least visited attraction site in percentage. It shows that
Table 2: Tourism Earnings from Cruise Landings for Christmas & Fanning
Year No. of Cruise Landings Total Passengers Cruise Head Tax – Revenue @ USD$6.OO per head 2002 52 114628 USD$ 1237510.10 2003 52 125177 USD$ 1041145.00 2004 38 64568 USD$ 497262.00 2005 35 55521 USD$ 471162.00 TOTAL TAX-REVENUE USD$ 3247079.00
No. of Cruise Landings
Tax – Revenue @ USD$6.OO per head
The table above represents the total revenue, which have been received from head tax with a standard exclusive landing fee paid by Norwegian Cruise Line. NCL (Norwegian Cruise Line) paid head tax only US$ 6.00 per passenger. The total tax-revenue is USD$ 3247079 which have a greater contribution to the tourism industry and the
Table 3: Leakage & Injection from Tourism Industry
Direct purchase from Overseas ($)
Sales of Tourism Materials ($)
(Source: Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, 2007
3.1 Economic Impacts of Tourism in
The tourism industry has generated substantial economic benefits to the
3.1.1 Positive Economic Impacts of Tourism
The main positive economic impacts of tourism relate to foreign exchange earnings, contributions to government revenues, generation of employment and business opportunities, stimulation of infrastructure, purchase of local handcrafts and development of cash economy.
3.1.1a Foreign Exchange Earnings:
Tourism expenditures and the export and import of related goods and services generate income to
3.1.1b Contributions to Government Revenues:
Government revenues from the tourism sector can be categorized as direct and indirect contributions. Direct contributions are generated by taxes on incomes from tourism employment and tourism businesses, and by levies on tourists such as departure taxes. Indirect contributions are those originated from taxes and duties imposed on goods and services supplied to tourists.
The departure tax is another source of government revenue from the tourism industry. It is calculated by multiplying the total number of tourists departing each year with the departure tax rate of AUD$21.00 per person. The actual total number of visitors from 2001 to 2006 is adding up to 30592 visitors, which generates AUD, $642,222.00 (21 × 30586) for the last six years. (Raiman, M. 2007, pers comm., Commissioner of Taxes, 9 July.)
3.1.1c Employment Generation:
Tourism is naturally known as a labour intensive industry. The rapid expansion of international tourism has led to significant employment creation in
3.1.1d Stimulation of Infrastructure Investment
Tourism can persuade the local government to make infrastructure improvements such as better water and sewage systems, roads, electricity, telephone and public transports. This can improve the standard of living in the country and improve the performance of the economy. As Aschauer, A.D (1990, 5) reports, the public investment in physical infrastructure is very important to private sector productivity and investment. Specifically, the main cause of the US Economy’s poor performance since 1970 is the slowdown in spending for infrastructure for the past 25 years. Tourism can encourage the local government to spend more on the improvement and development of infrastructures to prevent the situation as the
3.1.1e Purchase of Local Handicrafts:
3.1.1f Development of Cash Economy:
This provides more opportunity for artisanal fishermen and agricultural producers.
In order to provide a fully requirements of tourism services to visitors, such as providing a variety of foods, the demand for local products (such as fishes, vegetables, cabbages) will increase. Therefore, local people are more benefit from selling their local products to tourism sectors such as hotels and restaurants. (
As with other impacts, this massive economic development brings along both positive and negative consequences.
3.1.2 Negative Economic Impacts of Tourism in
There are many hidden costs to tourism, which can have unfavorable economic effects to the economy. These include the following:
3.1.2c Infrastructure cost
Tourism is an industry, which needs a country to provide large investment of infrastructure to encourage visitors visiting a place. This can cost the local government and local taxpayers a great deal of money. For example, tourism developers may want the government to improve the airport, roads and other infrastructure, and possibly, to provide tax breaks and other financial advantages. These are costly activities for the government. As a result, the government may reduce investments on other crucial sectors such as health and education. According to the Kiribati National Tourism Office (2007, 12), the poor or the lack of appropriate infrastructure which needs to be improved are as follows; poor conditions of roads on South Tarawa, port facility on Christmas Island that needs upgrading so that larger accessories like fire trucks can be unloaded for the new Cassidy airport, Airport facility and services needs improving as this provides a first and last impression by visitors, and hotels and resorts should also be upgraded to meet international standard. Kiribati National Tourism convinces the local government to implement those infrastructures, which can be the problem to the government’s financial decisions.
Tioti, T, Tourism Officer, Pers Comm.).
Tioti, T, Tourism Officer, Pers Comm.).
3.2.1ab Adaptation to tourist demands
This may leads to the over commercialization of traditional cultures. Tourists want souvenirs, arts, crafts, and cultural manifestations, and in many tourist destinations, craftsmen have responded to the growing demand, and have made changes in design of their products to bring them more in line with the new customers' tastes. While the interest shown by tourists also contributes to the sense of self-worth of the artists, and helps conserve a cultural tradition, cultural erosion may occur due to the commodification of cultural goods. For example, some
3.2.1ad Change in Lifestyle
Many tourists come from societies with different consumption patterns and lifestyles than what is current here in
The development of tourism can create land conflicts arising among landowners as well as tourism developers. In order to develop the tourism industry, there must be the need to establish more hotels, and other infrastructures. Construction of hotels and other facilities means more land area needed to be utilized for the construction sites. This can create disagreement and conflicts between landowner and the tourism developers and between different landowners. For example, the landowner can go against tourism developers if they did not pay him/her lease. (Tioti, T, Tourism Officer, Personal Comm. 6 July).
3.2.1c Crime Generation
Crime rates naturally increase with the growth and urbanization of an area and growth of mass tourism is often accompanied by increased crime. The occurrence of a large number of tourists with a lot of money to spend, and often carrying valuables such as cameras and jewelry, increases the attraction for criminals and brings with it activities like robbery and drug dealing. Tourism can also drive the development of gambling, which may cause negative changes in social behavior. (www. Jose, S., 1997, Sustaining tourism by managing financial and human resources)
3.2.1d Over Dependency on Tourists Dollar
As local people depend more on tourist’s dollar as their main source of earning income than other ways of receiving money, they will forget and put aside their traditional skills and knowledge. Traditional skills and knowledge such as fishing and cultivating are the crucial aspects of the
3.2.2 Positive Social Impacts of Tourism in
Social contacts between tourists and local people may result in mutual appreciation, understanding, tolerance, awareness, learning, family bonding respect, and liking.
3.2.2a Increasing understanding of the Diversity of Culture
Residents are educated by the outside world without leaving their homes, while their visitors significantly learn about a distinctive culture. By interacting with foreign people, local people know and understand more the difference between their traditional culture and other foreign cultures. As a result, local people find it easier for them to understand foreign cultures as they visit other countries. (
3.2.2b Improvement of Communication skills and Creativity
Tourism creates more chances for local people to interact with foreign people. The only way to communicate with a foreigner is to use the same language. In
3.2.2c Facilities developed for tourism can benefit residents
As tourism supports the creation of community facilities and services that otherwise might not have been developed, it can bring higher living standards to a destination. Local communities are benefited through contribution by tourism to the improvement of the social infrastructure like schools libraries, health care, transport improvements, new sport and recreational facilities, internet cafes, restaurants, and public spaces as well as an inflow of better-quality commodities and food. (Dickenson, J. et al, 1996, 305)
3.2.2d Tourism as a force for peace
Traveling brings people into contact with each other and, as tourism has an educational aspect; it can cultivate understanding between people and cultures and provide cultural exchange between hosts and guests. Because of this, the chances increase for people to develop mutual sympathy and understanding and to reduce their prejudices. For example, jobs provided by tourism in
3.2.2e Revival of Traditional Knowledge and Skills
This is the process of binging local knowledge and skills back to life, consciousness, or full strength. Tourism makes local people to keep their traditional skills and knowledge as in dancing, making handcrafts, and many more. Those skills are kept intact as local people keep on doing their local handicraft for selling and practicing traditional dances for concerting local aspects for the tourists. Fig 13 in appendix 13 shows a real situation of maintaining local dances as part of attracting activities to the tourists visiting
3.3 Negative Environmental Impacts of Tourism in
Tourism can cause the same forms of pollution as any other industry: solid waste and littering, releases of sewage, oil and chemicals, even architectural/visual pollution. This will affect the local communities and the tourism industry.
3.3.1 Solid waste and littering
Sewage is described as human and domestic waste matter from buildings, especially houses that is carried away through sewers. Construction of hotels, recreation and other facilities often leads to increased sewage pollution. Wastewater has polluted seas and ponds surrounding tourist attractions, damaging the flora and fauna. Sewage runoff causes serious damage to coral reefs because it stimulates the growth of algae, which cover the filter-feeding corals, hindering their ability to survive. Moreover, sewage pollution can threaten the health of humans and animals. (www. United Nations, 2003, Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea, Yahoo.com)
3.3.3 Alteration of ecosystems by tourist activities
Habitat can be degraded by tourism leisure activities. For example, wildlife viewing can bring about stress for the animals and alter their natural behavior when tourists come too close. Bird watching and wildlife watching activities have a degrading effect on habitat as they often accompanied by the noise and commotion. This puts high pressure on animal habits and behaviors and tends to bring about behavioral changes. In some cases, as in
3.4 Possible measures to address Economic, Social and Environmental Impacts of Tourism
Tourism is one of the biggest and fastest-growing economic sectors in the global economy and has significant environmental, cultural, social, and economic effects, both positive and negative. The challenge is to optimize the positive effects whilst minimizing and, wherever possible, eliminating the negative impacts. Below are some possible solutions addressing the negative impacts of tourism in
3.4.1 Development of Local Industries
Establishing more industries in the domestic economy is designed to reduce the amount of imported goods by producing them locally. It cost large amount of money but it beneficial to the local economy. This includes encouraging existing firms and industries and setting up new local businesses and industries. (Dickenson, J. et al, 1996, 179)
3.4.2 Finding cheap overseas markets
Tourism developers often import materials and equipments from overseas markets, which is due to the lack of local productive industries. There are different markets overseas, which supply their products at different prices, that is, some are cheaper than others are. Finding other cheap overseas markets may reduce the amount we spend overseas for the importation of required materials, foods, equipment and other things needed to the satisfy visitors. This can helop to minimize the leakage exist in the economy. (Toabwa, T, pers comm. 2007, 02 Aug).
3.4.3 Subsidizing Local Industries/Producers
Subsidies are payments made by the government to producers in order to reduce the costs of production that encourage the production of a commodity, increase output of a commodity such as a commodity which could be exported to increase foreign exchange receipts and thus improve the country’s trading position, and to reduce the price to consumers of a commodity. According to the National Economic Planning Office, 2007, 16, the total amount that expected to be subsidized to local industries and other sectors of the government is $6,730,000.00. This amount helps domestic firms and producers reducing their cost of production and therefore reduces the price of the commodities they supply to local people. (Sutton, R. 2005, 267)
3.4.3 Development of Eco-tourism
Eco-tourism focuses on local cultures, wilderness adventures, volunteering, personal growth and learning new ways to live on our vulnerable planet. It is ecologically and economically sustainable including education and interpretation of the natural environment and ensures social and economic benefits to the social community. Examples of eco-tourism practiced in
3.4.4 Conservation of Eco-tourism
Preserving the eco-tourism means preserving the environment or banning of polluting the environment, over-fishing, overusing of resources and so forth. This includes establishment of acts or laws to protect the environment and other natural resources. Tourism is a production that contributes greatly to the economy but it usually results in some sort of pollution such as seawater contaminated from ports constructions, hotels and other amenities. Prevention is better than cure, so without the Acts/Laws, tourism will create more pollution. Fig 1 in the result section displays the effect of internalizing negative externalities of tourism (as a production sector) by establishing regulations or laws and also represents how much it will cost to the tourism industry. It clearly shows that the cost of the externality, say pollution, has been internalized by regulation to the tourism industry, and therefore rised to SMC (Social Marginal Cost). (McPherson, D., 2003, 37)
3.4.5 Prioritizing Education
Prioritizing education means, taking or making education as a priority for particular purposes. It is the need to understand the value of education so that a person can do something concerning outcome of good education. Addressing the consequences that most people who are working within tourism industries like fishermen, agricultural producers and others who get money very easily in which it lead them to having no intention to attain higher education is naturally caused by not prioritizing education in their early days. According to the Kiribati National Tourism Office (2007, 11), it mentioned that, “…..they never realize that the money they get is very small compared with what those in higher position get…” Because they are not well educated, they cannot realize that the money they often receive is very small in value compared with those in higher positions. They did not understand the significance of attaining higher positions in relation to their qualifications.
3.4.6 Significance of traditional culture
In order to sustain the native culture, children should be taught the importance and significance of a traditional culture. They should know how precious and important their culture is. According to Klein, Ross A., 2003, Defining Culture, said that, “….one important qualification that anthropologists should possess is a strong awareness of their own culture…” This statement shows the great importance of a particular culture in which residence of that country should aware of. (
To prevent land disputations, the better way is to find and ensure that the land to be leased for establishing projects should be owned by a single household rather than multiple owners. Tourism developers should ensure that there must be a single landowner of a particular piece of land, which would be used for any tourism developments. By doing so, disputations for lands can be minimized. (
3.5 Consequences of the measures.
Below are some possible measures being taken and their consequences on the various sectors of the economy:
3.5.1 Development of Local Industries
Leakage is the amount that spend overseas for importing goods and services, which cannot produced locally. This leakage may decrease or minimize when local producers able to supply those goods and services locally and competitive more than overseas producers. Common imported goods from overseas are the materials and equipments for hotel constructions and other amenities. Other imported goods are for foods and standard of equipments, and other products that
3.5.2 Finding cheap overseas markets
Importing goods, equipments, materials for hotel constructions, and other amenities generate more import leakages in the economy. As our importers do import from only cheaper overseas producers rather than less competitive overseas exporters, the amount of money we spend overseas will be minimize. It is a responsibility for tourism sectors or developers to find cheaper overseas producers by comparing various prices (called quotation) of overseas exporter’s products and made them as their major overseas agents where they might import from and provide them with everything they need continuously. This benefits both the foreign exporter and tourism developers (i.e. importers) by making negotiations for allowing discounts. Consequently, the local importers pay less amount of money for required materials, reducing the cost of their production and import prices fall leading to positive balances in the current account of our balance of payments. (Toabwa, T, pers comm. 2007, 02 Aug).
3.4.3 Subsidizing Local Industries/Producers
The total number of inflow visitors is the additional figure to the total population in the country. As the total number of people in a particular place increase, the demand for basic goods and services increase because there are more people to utilize the existing scarce resources. As the demand of goods and services increase, the price of those goods and services increase as shown by Fig 2 on the result section. As a result, the quantity demanded excess the quantity supplied which forces consumers to compete for the limited goods and services in which suppliers maximize their prices to meet the increasing demand. To protect local people from expensive commodities, the best way is that the local government should subsidize those suppliers or producers so that their cost of production could be reduced and then increasing their supply. Then, as the supply increase, the price of goods and services will fall. Fig 3 on the result section shows graphically the impact of subsidy on the market. (Evans, G., 2003, 133)
3.5.3 Development of Eco-tourism
Developing eco-tourism can be the better way to minimize the amount of leakage or the money spending outside the domestic country. A good example is that some motels and hotels could be build using local materials and used as accommodations available to interested tourists. Today, most tourists prefer to stay in places where they can explore and observe the natural settings and participate in local activities, so the suitable place for those tourists are local made accommodations. This will minimize the leakage amount of money because the quantity of foreign materials has been minimized. (
3.5.4 Conservation of Eco-tourism
Tourism can and often does have destructive effects on biodiversity and pristine environments, and can result in the misuse of natural resources such as freshwater, forests, and coral reefs. For example, in a number of areas tourism development has resulted in serious water shortages affecting local communities and the tourism industry; forests have been depleted through wood collection for fuel; and sewage, sedimentation, divers, snorklers, and boats have damaged coral reefs. In order to avoid such impacts, tourism should be planned, managed and undertaken in a way that is environmentally sustainable, socially beneficial, and economically viable by establishing regulations and setting our strategies. For example, the Wildlife Act has been established and implemented on
3.5.5 Prioritizing Education
Within the tourism industry, there is a number of people who earns low income but it very easy for them earn enough income. These people have no intention to attain higher employment positions, which can be the result of not knowing the value of money they receive in comparison with the amount received by higher income earners. In fact, those people are uneducated such as fishermen and agricultural producers but if they have good education, they can know that the money they easily get is very small compared to amount received by those in higher positions. Therefore, people should be encouraged and showing them the importance of education so that they will be able to attain higher employment positions especially during their early days. (
3.5.6 Significance of our traditional culture
It a must for us to maintain our traditional culture. Parents, grandparents should nurture their children with culture and tradition so when they grow up they still have in mind the importance of their traditional cultures. This will assist and help children not to bother about the change in lifestyle and dressing codes when they mingle around with the tourists as they still have in mind how precious and important their traditional way of life is. Moreover, most tourists like to get some traditional handicrafts to bring with them back as souvenirs. From this, our traditional skills can be improved and difficult to disappear that local people need to supply their own made handcrafts to earn income continuously. For example, fellow women nowadays, began to forget some of their traditional skills of weaving mats but because they need to get money, they need to maintain their knowledge so that they can sell them to the tourists. (
Land disputes are commonly occurred because of using large area of land by tourism sectors. However, if the land borrowed is owned by one person there will be no disputations for this land because the landowner owns it solely without anyone to dispute with. Multiple landowners can create many disagreements such as one man owned the land but his/her brother or cousin agued that it is legally one of his lands. Therefore, building developers should make sure that one single person currently owns the land going to be used. (
This project has clearly show that the impact of tourism on local communities can be both positive and negative, whether it comes to economic, social, or environmental effects. It depends to which extent tourism is developed in a particular country. Every region/country has its bearing ability to handle the incoming influence of tourism industry. If we overcome that limit, negative impacts of tourism we will be able to gain economic boom, peace and healthier environment hopefully.
Here is a figure, which shows the dynamics between people, resources, and tourism in successful tourism: each makes a positive contribution to the others.
The Ecotourism Paradigm
All the three elements in this model are in co-interaction. Local communities use the natural resources but they also protect them. Tourists come to enjoy the nature and get knowledge about it, but they also can pollute and destroy it, or in the other side help to protect it by drawing attention to unique natural resources in the area. Local communities affect tourists by giving them knowledge of their culture and way of life. Tourists’ impact on the local populations can be first of all economic by generating income, developing resources, sharing knowledge and experience, etc. Whenever we develop a new tourist destination, we should always bear in mind this co-interaction.
In order to minimize the negative effects on local societies, the Kiribati Tourism industry can take into account the following points when arranging a tourism activity in a region:
Are local people involved in the tourism industry as employees?
Are there any acts or regulations established to address each harmful impact of tourism activities?
Does the organization cooperate with the local businesses?
Does it have a respectful attitude to the local culture?
Is there respect to nature and how is it protected?
How much economic benefit will the local population get from tourism?
Are tour operators concerned about ecological hotels, transport, and restaurants?
We can see it is a great challenge to make a profitable business running tourism in an area without some negative effect to the local communities. It is possible for the tourism industry to cooperate with other industries and bring benefits to both the tourism organizations and local businesses. The first step to achieve it is to understand the needs and desires of both the host community and the tourists.
However, our environment and natural resources can be preserved and conserved through the introduction of acts and committees. The only existing act is the Wildlife Act, which prohibits the killing of birds and catching undersized bonefishes. No act has been established for prohibiting pollution in
Furthermore, in accordance to the Kiribati National Tourism Office(2007, 14), it is satisfactory and pleasing for the tourism industry that the Government has established a Business Advisory Center in the Ministry of commerce, Industry and Cooperatives for the purpose of assisting new entrepreneurs to get started and existing ones to improve. Also the Development Bank of Kiribati provide a long term loans to private enterprises engaged in side ranging industries including and especially for the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in tourism. The possibility also exists for co-financing between the two banks, but for most large-scale foreign investment projects, the investors would be expected to provide the funds from abroad. The expecting outcome will be that our imports will minimize and our exports will maximize leading to favorable surplus in our balance of payments. It also means that the amount of money we often spend overseas for tourism facilities and other required things (as the leakage from our economy) will fall.
Nevertheless, the government seems to be unconcern about the change in value of traditional culture. The native culture is the beliefs, language, history, or the way local people dress and act. It is very crucial for living older citizens especially for the country’s own identity, thus it should not be unaltered and preserved. Because tourism is the main cause of the change in the native culture, it a must for the government to concern more on avoiding any tourist’s activities like wearing bikini for swim and other behaviors that can alter the traditional culture. Therefore, the government should prioritize or establishing strategies and other methods to control and maintain the Kiribati‘s cultural heritage.
Lastly, listed below are some other alternatives that the government must consider as major priorities to be implemented as soon as possible:
Introducing legislation requiring accommodations and other tourism providers to meet international standard. This can help to meet the interest of visitors and therefore increase the inflow number of tourists and maximise earnings for the economy.
Increase in marketing budget. This can help the tourism industry to cope with its strategies and sustainable programs for the environment. It also helps the Kiribati Tourism Industry to develop more tourism amenities and infrastructures, which may encourage the tourism activities and therefore contribute to the local economy.
Establishment of Handicraft Centres especially on
Accounting Office, 2007, Transactions by Account 2000 – 2006, unpublished paper, Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, Bairiki,
Aschauer, A.D, 1990, 5, The North American Cruise Industry’s Contribution to the Florida Economy in 2001, http://www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/home.html, yahoo.com
Business Research and Economic Advisors, 2002, 1, The North American Cruise Industry’s Contribution to the Florida Economy in 2001, http://www.iccl.org/resources/2001impact-analysis_fl.pdf, yahoo.com
Clarke, C. Dickenson, J. Gould, B. Mather, S. Prothero, M. Siddle, D. Smith, C. Thomas-Hope, E., 1996, Geography of the Third World, Routledge, London.
Evans, G., 2003, Senior Economics, Pearson Education New Zealand Limited,
Forbes, D. 2000, Infrastructures, http://www.epineet.org/studies/public_inve
Jose, S., 1997, Sustaining tourism by managing financial and human resources, http://www.oas.org/tourism/docnet/Iatc1en.htm, yahoo.com
Kiribati National Tourism Office, 2006, Welcome to the Government of
Kiribati National Tourism Office, 2005, 7, 8, 9, 20, 25, 27 and 28,
Kiribati National Tourism Office, 2007, 11, 14, and 15, Tourism Awareness Campaign in Kiribati, Unpublished report, National Tourism Office, Betio, Tarawa.
Klein, Ross A., 2003, Defining Culture, http://www,courses.ed.asu.edu/ Margolis_of_
Manuel, M., Smith, R., and McElroy, B. 1999, 235, Environmental Issues,
McPherson, D., 2003, Tourism a Cultural Process, Pearson Education New Zealand Limited,
Mike, s. 2006, Negative Impacts; Positive, http://oceansatlas.org/.../en/negative_impacts_leakage__en_19663_all_1.html,Yahoo.com
Mirbabayev, B. Shagazatova, M., 2003, 4, The Economic and Social Impact of Tourism, http://www.grips.ac.jp/alumni/uzbekistantourism(2).pdf, Yahoo.com
National Economic Planning Office, 2006, 32, Kiribati Government 2006 Budget, Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, Bairiki, Tarawa.
National Economic Planning Office, 2007, 34, Kiribati Government 2007 Budget, Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, Bairiki, Tarawa.
Raiman, M. 2007, pers comm., Commissioner of Taxes, 9 July.
Sutton, R. 2005, Economic Issues for New Zealand, Pearson Education New Zealand Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
Tebwao, B. 2007, pers. Comm., 27 July.
Tioti, T, 2007, Pers Comm., 6 July.
Toabwa, T, pers comm. 2007, 02 Aug.
UNEP, 2001, Economic and Social/Cultural Impacts of Tourism, http://www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/sust-tourism/economic.htm, yahoo.com
United Nations, 2003, Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea, http://www.unep.org/, Yahoo.com
William, M. 2001, 180, University Bursary & Scholarship Economics, ESA Publications (NZ) Ltd,
Fig 1: Otintaai Hotel:
(Source: www, 2006 Kiribati National Tourism Office, yahoo.com)
The hotel is situated on the edge of peaceful lagoon of
Fig 2: Mary’s Motel
(Source: www, 2006, Kiribati National Tourism Office, yahoo.com)
Fig 2 above is named as Mary’s Motel which is not owned and run by the government. It is located at Bairiki,
Fig 3: Sweet Coconut Motel
(Source: www. 2006, Kiribati National Tourism Office, yahoo.com)
Located at Tebunia,
Fig 4: Te Maeu Lodge
Situated on the ocean site of Eita on
Fig 5: Lagoon Breeze Motel
Lagoon Breeze is located beside the lagoon at Abarao,
Fig 6: Buota Lodge
(Source: www. 2006, Kiribati National Tourism Office, yahoo.com)
Situated at Buota on
Fig 7: Captain Cook Hotel
(Source: www. 2006, Kiribati National Tourism Office, yahoo.com)
Situated at Main Camp on
(source: www.2006, Kiribati National Touruism Office, yahoo.com)
The Lagoon Club at Ambo is situated on a beautiful beach on
Fig 9: War relics at Betio
The Islands’ role in World War II is evident in the battle of
Fig 10: Bird Sanctuaries, at
(Source: www. 2006, Kiribati National Tourism Office, Yahoo.com)
An abundance of unexploited marine life can be found surrounding the seas of the islands. However, the richest parts of untouched marine life can be found in the waters of Line and
Fig 12: Biketawa Attractions
(Source: www. 2006, Kiribati National Tourism Office, Yahoo.com)
Biketawa Islet situated in North Tarawa is a perfect place for picnics, camping, swimming and relaxing on its white sparkling sandy beach. Otintaai Hotel organizes day picnic trips to the islet every Saturday on the second week of the month with a fee of $10.00 adults and $7.50 for children under 8 years old, which covers your picnic package - Meal and return transport.
Fig 13: Local dances practiced (
Figure 15: Visitors and Other Travelers
The diagram above shows the difference in purposes of traveling from place to place. Visitors travel for recreation, leisure, holidays and so forth whereas other travelers such as refugees, wanderers, etc travels because they have no fixed place of residence. Those people are not considered as tourists.